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八、句子的种类和主谓一致

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                 八、句子的种类和主谓一致


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   1  1              知识讲义

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              (一)句子的种类

                1.陈述句

                陈述句主要考查肯定式和否定式及含有否定词no,never,

        nobody,few,little,hardly,seldom,none,neither的否定

        式。

                 2.疑问句

                (1)一般疑问句①基本结构:Be+主语+其他?

                                                  助动词/情态动词+主语+谓语+其他?

                        

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                   ②一般疑问句询问事物或某种情况是否属实,需要对方用Yes

         或No来回答。肯定回答用Yes,主语+be/助动词/情态动词.;否定回

         答用No,主语+be/助动词/情态动词+not.(一般not要与前面词语

         构成缩略形式);有时用Certainly/OK/Of course/Sure/All 

         right/With pleasure等来代替Yes;用Never/Not at all/I￿m afraid 

         not 等来代替No。如:

                     —Did you have a good May Day holiday?

                     —Yes,I did./Certainly./No,I didn‘t.

                   


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                (2)特殊疑问句特殊疑问句由特殊疑问词(组)引导,常考的特

        殊疑问词(组)主要有:when,where,what,how often,how 

        soon,how many,how much,how long等。如:

                  —Where is your brother?

                  —He is at home.

                (3)反意疑问句

                  ①反意疑问句是由一个陈述句和一个附加疑问句构成的,并且要

        遵循“前肯后否,前否后肯”的原则。附加的问句要和前面陈述部分的

        主语一致,谓语动词在人称、数和时态上也要保持一致。如:

                  Li Mei usually helps others,doesn’t she?

                  They didn‘t have English class yesterday,did they?

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                   ②反意疑问句要特别注意的几点:

                   · 陈述部分如果有hardly,never,little,few,no等否定词时

         ,要把它看成否定句,后面用肯定形式。

                   · 祈使句的反意疑问句一般用will you?但是以Let’s开头的祈

         使句,反意疑问部分要用shall we?如:

                    Let‘s go to the cinema to see a film,shall we?

                   · ’s出现的时候要特别注意是is的缩写还是has的缩写。

                   · 反意疑问句的答语一定要根据事实来回答。肯定的事实用yes

         来回答,否定的事实用no来回答。

               

          
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                 (4)选择疑问句选择疑问句的结构为:

                   ①一般疑问句+or+选择项?如:

                     —Do you like English or Chinese?

                     —I like English.

                   ②特殊疑问句+A or B?如:

                    —Which animal do you like better,tigers or pandas?

                    —Pandas.They are lovely.

                    3.祈使句

                  (1)祈使句表示命令、请求、劝告等。肯定句用动词原形来表

         示,否定句用“Don￿t+动词原形”来表示。如:

                  
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                    Sit down,please.

                    Don‘t smoke here.

                 (2)常考查固定句型“祈使句+and/or+简单句”。此句型中,

         and表示顺承,or表示否则。如:

                    Work hard,and you will learn English well.

                    Hurry up,or you will be late.

                  4.感叹句

               感叹句考查的主要是由what或how引导的句型。

                (1)What+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数(+主语+谓语)!如

         :

                    What a fine day it is!
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                 (2)What+形容词+可数名词复数(+主语+谓语)!如:

                   What lovely children they are!

                 (3)What+形容词+不可数名词(+主语+谓语)!如:

                   What good advice you’ve told me!

                 (4)How+形容词/副词(+主语+谓语)!如:

                    How clever the girl is!

                 (5)How+主语+谓语!如:

                    How time flies!


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                (二)主谓一致

                 1.主谓一致三原则

                 主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在人称和数上保持一致。主谓一致

        必须遵循三原则:语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

                 2.主谓一致常见考查点

               (1)单数第三人称的名词/代词、不可数名词作主语时,谓语动

        词用单数形式;复数名词/代词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

                  The desk is Tom‘s.

                  Some water is in the bottle.

                  The students are playing football on the playground.          

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                 (2)表示时间、价格、重量、数目、长度、数学运算等的词或短

         语作主语时,这些通常作一个整体概念,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

                    Two months is a long holiday.

                   Ten miles isn’t a long distance.

                    Five minus four is one.

                 (3)主语是“each/every+单数名词+and+(each/every+)

         单数名词”时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

                   Each boy and each girl has got a seat.

                   Every man and every woman is at work.

                 

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                (4)动词不定式或动名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如

       :

                  To see is to believe.

                  Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes.

                (5)“a/an+单数名词+or two”作主语时,谓语动词用单数

       形式。如:

                   A student or two has failed the exam.

                (6)主语部分含有with,together with,along with,as 

       well as,besides,except,but,like等介词短语时,谓语动词与它

       们前面的主语一致。如:

                  Mike with his father has been to England.
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                 (7)people,police,cattle,clothes等本身就是复数概念的

        名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

                   People here are very friendly.

                 (8)family,class,group,team等集体名词作主语,若指一

        个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式;若指具体的成员时,谓语动词用复数

        形式。如:

                   His family isn‘t large.

                   My family all like watching TV.

            


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                    (9)不定代词each,either,neither,somebody,

         someone,something,anybody,anything,everybody,

         everyone,everything,nobody,no one,nothing作主语时,谓

         语动词用单数形式。如:

                      Each of them has an English dictionary.

                      Neither answer is correct.Is everyone here today ?

                      Something is wrong with him.

                      Nobody was in.


                   
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                   (10)由both...and...连接两个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用

        复数形式;由or,either...or...,not only...but also...,

        neither...nor...,not...but...等连接两个名词或代词作主语时,根据就

        近原则决定谓语动词的形式。如:

                    Both his father and his mother are teachers.

                    Tom or Jack is wrong.

                    Either this one or that one is OK.

          .


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                (11)“a number of+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数

        形式;“the number of+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式

        。如:

                  A number of famous people were invited to the party.

                  The number of the students is over eight hundred.

                (12)当kind of,pair of,glass of 等表示确定数量的名词短语

        修饰主语时,谓语动词与kind,pair,glass等一致。如:

                  This pair of shoes is Tom’s.

                  There are two glasses of water on the table.


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                  (13)“the+形容词”表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式;

        表示抽象概念时,用单数形式。如:

                    The poor are very happy,but the rich are sad.

                    The beautiful lives forever.

                  (14)以here,there开头的句子,若主语为两个或两个以上,

        谓语动词通常与邻近的主语一致。如:

                   There is a book and three pens on the desk.

                   Here are some books and paper for you.


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